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Fungal Names and Synonyms
Synonym and Classification Data for Torulopsis spp.


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This genus name is obsolete. This genus is an ascomycetous yeast.

Synonyms and Teleomorph-Anamorph Relationships

This obsolete genus is a synonym of Candida

Notes on this Genus

This genus is good example of the kinds of issues that can arise with respect to fungal nomenclature. Over the years, there have been three genera called Torulopsis independently proposed by different people. These three genera are:

  1. Torulopsis Berl., 1894
  2. Torulopsis Oudem., 1903
  3. Torulopsis Speg., 1918
The first of these, Torulopsis Berlese, 1894 was based upon a yeast which might have been a species of Candida. However, we think this yeast was actually a strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae that did not produce ascospores. This belief is based upon the facts that many yeasts associated with grapes, fruit, and similar habitats were lumped together in the genus Saccharomyces. Because nothing of the original material exists, we will never know for sure. Since the morphological forms made by this yeast are consistent with species of Candida, the genus Torulopsis can be treated as a synonym of Candida.

So, which name should we use? Well, it turns out that the name Torulopsis was made before Candida, and the rules of nomenclature would dictate that we would adopt the name Torulopsis. However, the discovery of the synonymy between these two genera occured so late in the game that the genus name Candida had become far better established in the literature. Indeed, it was so well established that it was decided many years ago that the name Candida should be kept regardless of whether other names existed that should be used because they were older. This was done so that excessively confusing changes would be avoided. Thus, by special action taken by international scientific community based upon a proposal by Dr. Rhoda Benham, the genus Candida was conserved against all other names that could be considered the same yeast as Candida, thereby protecting it against any future nomenclature changes.

To take this story a little further, you'll also note the existence of the obsolete name Torulopsis neoformans. Today, we know that that yeast as Cryptococcus neoformans. Because of the inadequate way in which some of the older genera were described, the yeast named Torulopsis neoformans is a synonym of Cryptococcus neoformans. The genus Torulopsis is not, however a synonym of the genus Cryptococcus

Species in this genus
  • Torulopsis albida (obsolete)
    This obsolete species is a synonym of Cryptococcus albidus

  • Torulopsis aurantia (obsolete)
    This obsolete species is a synonym of Rhodotorula mucilaginosa

  • Torulopsis biourgei (obsolete)
    This obsolete species is a synonym of Rhodotorula mucilaginosa

  • Torulopsis candida (obsolete)
    This obsolete species is a synonym of Candida famata

  • Torulopsis capsulatus (obsolete)
    This obsolete species is a synonym of Histoplasma capsulatum var. capsulatum

  • Torulopsis corallina (obsolete)
    This obsolete species is a synonym of Rhodotorula mucilaginosa

  • Torulopsis glabrata (obsolete)
    Notes: The yeast known as Torulopsis glabrata was not orginally included in the genus Candida because it neither developed pseudohyphae nor true hyphae. Pseudohyphae and true hyphae have been traditional characteristics used by yeast taxonomists to help classify yeasts. Specifically, the genus Torulopsis was defined to include yeast that lacked pseudohyphae whereas Candida species were defined to produce them. However, induction of pseudohyphae sometimes requires special efforts: for example, C. guilliermondii do not routinely produced pseudohyphae unless they are grown on a medium such as yeast morphology agar. However, even on special media T. glabrata never produced pseudohyphae.

    Thus, this species was long held to belong to the genus Torulopsis. However, the application of various molecular approaches for classifying yeasts and the fact that the presence of morphological characters like pseudohyphae can be highly variable, it was later concluded that the presence or absence of pseudohyphae was not a sound character to separate the genera Torulopsis and Candida. As a result of this conclusion, T. glabrata was transferred to the genus Candida as C. glabrata.

    This obsolete species is a synonym of Candida glabrata

  • Torulopsis haemulonii (obsolete)
    This obsolete species is a synonym of Candida haemulonii

  • Torulopsis mannitica (obsolete)
    This obsolete species is a synonym of Rhodotorula mucilaginosa

  • Torulopsis mena (obsolete)
    This obsolete species is a synonym of Rhodotorula mucilaginosa

  • Torulopsis mucilaginosa (obsolete)
    This obsolete species is a synonym of Rhodotorula mucilaginosa

  • Torulopsis mucilaginosa var. carbonei (obsolete)
    This obsolete species is a synonym of Rhodotorula mucilaginosa

  • Torulopsis mucilaginosa var. pararosea (obsolete)
    This obsolete species is a synonym of Rhodotorula mucilaginosa

  • Torulopsis mucilaginosa var. plicata (obsolete)
    This obsolete species is a synonym of Rhodotorula mucilaginosa

  • Torulopsis neoformans (obsolete)
    This obsolete species is a synonym of Cryptococcus neoformans

  • Torulopsis nitritophila (obsolete)
    This obsolete species is a synonym of Rhodotorula mucilaginosa

  • Torulopsis sanguinea (obsolete)
    This obsolete species is a synonym of Rhodotorula mucilaginosa

  • Torulopsis stercoralis (obsolete)
    This obsolete species is a synonym of Candida glabrata



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